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First Aid

First Aid:

–          Over 65’s are twice as likely to die from a fall as having smoked over a lifetime.

–          Keep an eye for sores, cuts, bruises, blisters joints/bones in unusual angles as may get infected or a sign they need help

–          Don’t give first aid unless trained and confident.

–          Assess the situation, safe to approach? Elec/gas/glass. Removable?
Assess casualty, do not move them if they may have fallen as risk of damage to neck/spine. Are they conscious? Gently shake shoulders.

–          If unresponsive they are unconscious and a priority

–          Spend 10 secs with casualty on back, head tilt chin lift (ball of hand on forehead two fingers under chin), look for chest rising and falling, listen at mouth, feel for breath on cheek.

–          If breathing: recovery position then 999.

–          If not call 999 then start CPR: 30 (5cm) chest compressions (100xa minute), open airways, 2 rescue breaths (close nostrils, tight seal around mouth, steadily blow into mouth til chest moves (1 second). Take mouth away and wait for chest to fall. Then repeat chest

–          Check airways for obstructions but don’t use fingers or push anything into their mouth

–          Stay with the casualty and perform CPR until a) you become exhausted, b) they start to breathe, c)ambulance arrives

–          Recover position: kneel beside casualty, empty pockets and glasses, straighten limbs, nearest arm at right angle, furthest arm across body (with back of palm on cheek) Bend furthest knee and roll over onto side. Make sure at right angles.

Heart Attack:

–          Symptoms include vice like chest pain that may travel from chest to arms and neck, anxiety, breathlessness, pale skin with blue lips, sudden weakness, collapse.

–          Relieve strain by loosening clothing

–          Sit down and support head. Don’t give fluids

–          Don’t give meds, if they have meds for angina allow them to take it

–          If unconscious perfrom 1 set of CPR and then call 999


–          Gain access to the wound

–          Apply pressure with a sterile dressing or palm of hand (wear gloves) for 5-10 mins

–          Don’t remove objects from the wound, apply pressure round them

–          Keep the wound elevated above the heart of possible

–          Wrap a tight (not to block circulation tight) dressing around the wound, padding around the object

–          Assess the extent of bleeding and call 999

–          Treat shock if necessary and wash hands


–          Symptoms include; rapid or weak pulse, pale skin, sweating, cold clammy, weak, nausea, thirst, rapid breathing, restlessness, gasping, unconsciousness and possible cardiac arrest.

–          First treat the cause e.g. cut

–          Lie down, loosen clothing, blanket underneath, raise legs above head to encourage blood flow, keep them warm

–          Do not allow eating drinking moving or smoking


–          Symptoms include difficulty speaking, grasping throat, contorted face, pale blue skin, unconciousnes

–          Encourage to cough

–          Shout for help. Don’t leave them

–          5 back slaps (bent over) using ball of hand in centre of shoulder blades in an upwards motion

–          Then ab thrusts, hands (one fisted one covering) between belly button and breast plate

–          Repeat


–          Symptoms include loss of muscular control, loss of sensation and unconsciousness, paralysis, slurred speech.

–          A TIA is 10x more likely to have a stroke

–          Call 999

–          Don’t offer food or drink

–          If vomit, drooling or cant swallow place on one side to drain

Back Injury:

–          Symptoms include difficulty breathing, loss of control of limbs

–          Reassure, don’t move them, keep back aligned and hold head with hands over their ears to prevent movement

–          Call 999

–          Only tilt head if unconscious


–          After 60 the risk is greater of getting burnt and the size area of burns will be larger.

–          Over 75’s are most likely to get burned in the kitchen

–          Assess situation, serousnesss? Cause? Shock?

–          Remove from danger

–          Treat swelling, run under cold water tap for at least 10 minutes

–          Gently remove clothing and jewellery

–          Do not apply lotion, material, touch or interfere with the wound

–          Gently apply sterile dressing and call 999


–          The area can become cold and numb

–          Dangers of fractures (swelling/bruising) and internal bleeding

–          If been under object for less than 15mins release, and if can treat the fracture and shock and then call 999

–          If been under object for more than 15m call 999 asap then reassure


–          Types: hyper glycemia=high blood sugar
hypo glycemia= low blood sugar

–          Symptoms of hyper=acetone on breath, thirst, dry skin, rapid pulse, unconsciousness, coma

–          Symptoms of hypo=faint, dizzy, confused, sweating, shallow breath

–          Call 999

–          If a hypo give sweet food (fruit or biscuits) and sit them down

Allergic reactions:

–          Can lead to anaphylactic shock

–          Food, meds, stings etc can cause

–          Look out for rashes, red skin, blotchy skin, breathing and swelling, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, stiffness, shaking, headaches, drowsiness, constipation and weight gain.

–          Sit them down check breathing and allow own use of adrenaline. Call 999

–          Can happen slowly over time or could be immediate


–          Symptoms include: intense pain, redness, swelling, watering, unable to open

–          Irrigate the eye for ten minutes wearing gloves

–          Lie them on back with head on knees and affected eye facing down ward

–          Hold a pad over the eye, identify if a chemical has caused it and call 999


–          Never induce vomiting

–          Reassure

–          Find out what swallowed

–          Drink frequent milk or water if corrosive

First Aid Kit:

–          Should include 20 sterile dressings, 4 triangle bandages, 2 eye patches, 6 safety pins, 6 medium dressings, 2 large dressings, gloves and no tablets


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